DIVA: Exploration and Validation of Hypothesized Drug-Drug Interactions

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The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Adverse reactions caused by drug-drug interactions are a major public health concern. Currently, adverse reaction signals are detected through a tedious manual process in which drug safety analysts review a large number of reports collected through post-marketing drug surveillance. While computational techniques in support of this signal analysis are necessary, alone they are not sufficient. In particular, when machine learning techniques are applied to extract candidate signals from reports, the resulting set is (1) too large in size, i.e., exponential to the number of unique drugs and reactions in reports, (2) disconnected from the underlying reports that serve as evidence and context, and (3) ultimately requires human intervention to be validated in the domain context as a true signal warranting action. In this work, we address these challenges though a visual analytics system, DIVA, designed to align with the drug safety analysis workflow by supporting the detection, screening, and verification of candidate drug interaction signals. DIVA's abstractions and encodings are informed by formative interviews with drug safety analysts. DIVA's coordinated visualizations realize a proposed novel augmented interaction data model (AIM) which links signals generated by machine learning techniques with domain-specific metadata critical for signal analysis. DIVA's alignment with the drug review process allows an analyst to interactively screen for important signals, triage signals for in-depth investigation, and validate signals by reviewing the underlying reports that serve as evidence. The evaluation of DIVA encompasses case-studies and interviews by drug analysts at the US Food and Drug Administration - both of which confirm that DIVA indeed is effective in supporting analysts in the critical task of exploring and verifying dangerous drug-drug interactions.

, journal = {Computer Graphics Forum}, title = {{
DIVA: Exploration and Validation of Hypothesized Drug-Drug Interactions
}}, author = {
Kakar, Tabassum
Qin, Xiao
Rundensteiner, Elke A.
Harrison, Lane
Sahoo, Sanjay K.
De, Suranjan
}, year = {
}, publisher = {
The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
}, ISSN = {
}, DOI = {
} }